Where Land and Language Meet: An Exploration of Indigenous Geography and Controlled Vocabularies

By Lauren Haberstock
Twitter: @la_ma_ha


Author statement:

I am a non-indigenous scholar and approach this post with great humility and the desire to create a space for conversation, critique, and feedback that might further the discussion of decolonization in the field of Library and Information Science. My background is that of a Masters student, currently studying in the field of Library and Information Science, trained in a Western paradigm and to whom Indigenous methodologies are relatively new. I remain open and flexible in my approach and seek to engage with other researchers, scholars, and individuals both from within my field and from other fields who may be interested in my work.

Working against unilateral cultural appropriation and toward an indigenous telling of indigenous experience, indigenous geography has emerged over the past few decades as a movement driven by a critical outlook and re-envisioning of the future within academic and Native communities. In the Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada, Drew Hayden Taylor writes, “By letting settlers tell our stories, they control how the public views us. The Native experience is filtered through a non-Native consciousness, and therefore inaccurate and flawed” (Taylor, n.d.). Stories told by indigenous voices are integral to truth and reconciliation work. Karyn Pugliese writes, “Reconciliation means putting our truths in the same story. Stories built on half-history lead to tropes not truths” (Pugliese, n.d.). Restoring relationships built on mutual respect between people, land, language, and ways of knowing are essential for this healing journey (“Redress and Healing,” n.d.; “The Road to Reconciliation,” n.d).

As with any field of research, it is vital to recognize the importance of community ownership and self-determination in research. Research often plays an integral role in social and economic equity. In 2018, the National Inuit Strategy on Research (NISR) was published in order to, “advance Inuit governance in research, to enhance the ethical conduct of research, to align funding with Inuit research priorities, to ensure Inuit access, ownership and control over data and information, to build capacity in Inuit Nunangat research” (Research, n.d.). Indigenous methodologies reconceptualize the research process, the search for knowledge, as a spiritual journey that is circular and cyclical and work to ensure that, “research on Indigenous issues is accomplished in a more sympathetic, respectful, and ethically correct fashion from an Indigenous perspective” (Louis, 2007, p. 133). Indigenous methodologies include the following four aspects identified by Louis (2007): relational accountability, respectful representation, reciprocal appropriation, and rights and regulations. The research process from an indigenous perspective also relies upon, “storytelling as a means of thinking through the complexity, contingency, and plurality of co-creating knowledges” (Wright, et al., 2012, p. 41).

Names have power and are a way to exert control. The work of decolonization must necessarily include the decolonization of geographic place names. Already, this work has begun across Canada. Dan David writes, “Nearly 30,000 official place names across Canada are of Indigenous origin and provinces now have groups dedicated to changing place names and maps back to the original Indigenous name” (David, n.d.). Specifically, in 2015, the Northwest Territories approved five names for the Mackenzie River in the languages of those who live along the river system, which are “Deho” in North Slavey, “Dehcho” in South Slavey, “Grande Riviére” in Michif, “Kuukpak” in Inuvialuktun, and “Nagwichoonjik” in Gwich’in (Natural Resources Canada, 2017).  The work of indigenous place names research culminating in these names being made official, according to Lynn Peplinski, “is essential to preserving this tangible source of traditional knowledge for tomorrow’s generations” (Peplinski, n.d.). In many indigenous cultures, place names are descriptive, reflecting intimate and experiential knowledge of the land (Peplinski, n.d.).

Peplinksi works with the Inuit Heritage Trust on their Place Names Program, which seeks to record Elders’ knowledge of place names and share this information (Inuit Heritage Trust, 2013). Digging deeper into the depths of this relationship between people and land, Michael Kusugak notes the naming of place based upon character in the Inuit community, writing, “I have always had an aversion to English place names. They mean nothing to the people who live there. Why anybody would name the place where I grew up, Repulse Bay, I have never known. It is not repulsive in any way; it is a very beautiful place. We call it Naujaat. Nauja means “seagull,” and Naujaat refers to the cliffs there where seagulls nest in summer. It is a much more fitting name than Repulse Bay” (Kusugak, n.d.). Since January 2006, 400 new names and name changes have been added to Canada’s official maps in Nunavut alone, in some cases replacing well-known historical names (Inuit Heritage Trust, 2016).

Additionally, the work of decolonization is exemplified in the work of projects like Native Land Digital’s interactive mapping website. This indigenous-led mapping project seeks to involve indigenous communities in the mapping process and build interest in indigenous lands. The maps are a constant work in progress, evolving and refining with continuous user input.

Screenshot of the interactive mapping website Native Land zoomed in on North America. Used with permission.

Providing an additional example of decolonizing work in the digital humanities, the Diné Peoples’ 3D Portal is a digital archive of Diné knowledge and language currently supported by collections from the Michigan State University Museum. In its current iteration, the archive holds digital versions of stereographs and Navajo textiles, which are given contextualization within the indigenous experience through links to additional records and media.

dine peoples stereograph
Santa Fe Train Crossing over Canyon Diablo, Arizona, stereograph in the Diné Peoples’ 3D Portal. From the Collection of Michigan State University Museum. Used with permission.

In the field of library and information science, controlled vocabularies have a complicated history that includes furthering a dominant narrative, which has excluded and marginalized indigenous populations. The ideals of free and open access to all information have long been embedded in the professional practices of this field. However, these ideals do not take into account the protocols in indigenous cultures that may limit information sharing. Unfortunately, researchers and practitioners have often not respected the sacred and cultural importance of some information, leading to breaches in confidence with indigenous peoples in the name of advancing knowledge (Becvar and Srinivasan, 2009; Parent 2015).

Controlled vocabularies, as a form of standardization and control, must engage in decolonizing work. Coates writes, “Decolonization, the process of identifying and destabilizing colonial structures, creates space for Indigenous ways of knowing, being and doing” (Coates, n.d.). The inclusion of expert peoples who represent originating communities for materials must be an important aspect of any collaborative movement (Enote, 2015). Controlled vocabularies do not need to be limited by their colonial heritage, but can grow and revise to better reflect the multiplicity that exists in ways of organizing knowledge. For example the Brian Deer classification scheme emphasizes the relationality between terms by “placing Haisla, Comox, and Squamish groups in proximity to show that they are geographically close” (Parent, 2015, p. 704). The current information ecosystem is one that is multicultural and multilingual. The terms used to describe and provide access to materials reflect the values, ethics, and beliefs of those describing. Mindfulness of access points, cultural differences, and the appropriateness of terminology is a key step in the process of organizing information in a way that acknowledges and embraces all ways of knowing (Baca & Gill, 2015; Parent, 2015).

Do you know of other digital projects working towards decolonization and reconciliation? Have you been involved in similar projects? Let us know in the comments.

Further reading:

Bone, C. & Lougheed, B. (2018). Library of Congress Subject Headings related to Indigenous peoples: Changing LCSH for use in a Canadian archival context. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 56(1), 83-95. DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2017.1382641

Bryan, J. (2009). Where would we be without them? Knowledge, space and power in indigenous politics. Futures, 41, 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2008.07.005

Hajibayova, L. & Buente, W. (2017). Representation of indigenous cultures: Considering the Hawaiian hula. Journal of Documentation, 73(6): 1137-1148. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2017-0010

Larsen, S. C. & Johnson, J. T. (2012). In between worlds: Place, experience, and research in Indigenous geography. Journal of Cultural Geography, 29(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.1080/08873631.2012.646887

Littletree, S. & Metoyer, C. A. (2015). Knowledge organization from an Indigenous perspective: The Mashantucket Pequot Thesaurus of American Indian Terminology Project. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 53(5-6), 640-657. DOI:10.1080/01639374.2015.1010113

Martens, M. (2006). Creating a supplemental thesaurus to LCSH for a specialized collection: The experience of the National Indian Law Library. Law Library Journal, 98(2), 287-297.

Natural Resources Canada (2017). Indigenous place names [Webpage]. Retrieved from https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geography/place-names/indigenous/19739

United Nations. (March 2008). United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf



Baca, M. & Gill, M. (2015). Encoding multilingual knowledge systems in the digital age: The Getty vocabularies. Knowledge Organization, 42(4), 232-243. DOI: 10.5771/0943-7444-2015-4-232

Becvar, K. & Srinivasan, R. (2009). Indigenous knowledge and culturally responsive methods in information research. Library Quarterly, 74(6), 421-441. https://doi.org/10.1086/605382

Coates, T. (n.d.). Education. In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (First Nations). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/education-2/

David, D. (n.d.). Traditional land use. In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (First Nations). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/traditional-land-use/

Enote, J. (2015). Museum collaboration manifesto [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://ashiwi-museum.org/collaborations/museum-collaboration-manifesto/

Inuit Heritage Trust. (2013). Staff in our Iqaluit office [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://www.ihti.ca/eng/iht-staf.html

Inuit Heritage Trust. (2016). Introduction: Place names in Nunavut [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://ihti.ca/eng/place-names/pn-index.html?agree=0

Kusugak, M. (n.d.). Nunannguaq. In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (Forewords). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/forewords/nunannguaq/

Louis, R. P. (2007). Can you hear us now? Voices from the margin: Using Indigenous methodologies in geographic research. Geographical Research, 45(2), 130-139. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-5871.2007.00443.x

Parent, I. (2015). Knowledge systems for all. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 53(5-6), 703-706. DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2015.1027985

Peplinski, L. (n.d.). Place names. In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (Inuit). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/place-names/

Pugliese, K. (n.d.). Reconciliation. In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (First Nations). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/reconciliation/

Redress and healing. (n.d.). In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (Truth and Reconciliation). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/redress-and-healing/

Research. In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (Inuit). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/research-priorities/

The road to reconciliation. (n.d.). In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (Truth and Reconciliation). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/the-road-to-reconciliation/

Taylor, D. H. (n.d.). What is indigenous? In Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (First Nations). Retrieved from https://indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca/article/what-is-indigenous/

Wright, S., Lloyd, K., Suchet-Pearson, S., Burarrwanga, L., Tofa, M., & Bawaka Country. (2012). Telling stories in, through and with Country: Engaging with Indigenous and more-than-human methodologies at Bawaka, NE Australia. Journal of Cultural Geography, 29(1), 39-60. DOI: 10.1080/08873631.2012.646890

Digital Humanities Bibliography

The idea for this bibliography came about during 2014-2015 as the Digital Humanities Special Interest Groups were being formed in the Visual Resources Association and the Art Libraries Society of North America. With the recent flurry of publications in the digital humanities over the past five years, and increasing interest in digital humanities in academic disciplines, a comprehensive bibliography seemed all the more important.

Since neither SIG decided to pursue the project, John Taormina, director of the Visual Media Center in the Department of Art, Art History & Visual Studies at Duke University, and one of the founders of both SIGs, began developing the bibliography in earnest during the 2017-18 academic year. Work continued over the course of three semesters with the assistance of Duke students for data entry. During that time one undergraduate, Michael O’Sullivan, and two doctoral students, Katherine McCusker and Alex Strecker, contributed to the project.

Various bibliographies from digital humanities publications (books and journals) were identified, selected, and collated into this new bibliography. The first version of this document was released in February 2019 at 149 pages.  Additions to this type of compilation are ongoing and updates will be released quarterly. A filterable online version is in development.

Currently, the bibliography is being re-organized under categories such as art, art history, archaeology, and other disciplines; apps and software; data visualization, text mining, and databases; computational media, 3D modeling, and gaming; and other areas that fall under the digital humanities rubric.

The bibliography is available via the Duke Wired! Digital Art History & Visual Culture website: dukewired.org



Finding the Right Tools



In a new article in Computers in Libraries (Jan./Feb. 2017), “Top Tools for Digital Humanities Research,” Nancy K. Herther, reviews some of the best free and open source tools available today. Among those reviewed are Voyant Tools, Umigon, Prism, and Sophie. Herther also provides a list of tools arranged by function with sections for Digital Humanities Toolkits, Timeline Tools, and Data Visualization.

Another suggested resource for an in-depth look at tools is the DiRT Directory, a registry of digital research tools for scholarly use.   Entries may be viewed by function and the registry offers ways to drill down by platform, cost, license, and type of data or object.

Do you have a favorite resource for learning about new tools, or finding those that best answer a particular need?



Round-up, first half of 2016

1893 lithograph. From Metropolitan Museum of Art – Gallery Images on archive.org.

We’re nearly at the half-way point of the year! That means I’ve got lots of links to share in this round-up.

Round-up for July, 2015 part two

For part two, I will admit that I’m just sharing things with you that I still have open in browser tabs, awaiting time to fully investigate, but seem promising enough to pass along.

Flowingdata.com – What is FlowingData? I’m not quite sure yet. The “About” page says, “FlowingData explores how statisticians, designers, data scientists, and others use analysis, visualization, and exploration to understand data and ourselves.” Scrolling through the site, it seems to collect a variety of visualizations dealing with everything from incarceration rates, beer, and literary road trips.

The good, the bad, and the unstructured… Open data in cultural heritage – Here is a blog post including presentation slides by Mia Ridge, cultural heritage technologist, from a colloquium called Linked Pasts.

Should I do Social Network Analysis? – Marten Düring made a cheat sheet flowchart to help you make the decision whether network analysis would be helpful in your research.

Slides and Lectures from Beyond the Digitized Slide Library workshop – Instead of a week at the beach, spend a week at home working your way through tons of valuable information from the UCLA digital art history workshop covering everything from, “What is digital art history?”, to Omeka, to visualization, and more. It is a tremendously generous resource.

Eyeo Festival – After spending a week with the UCLA content, you could probably spend another week watching presentations from the Eyeo Festival, which was new to me but just wrapped up it’s fifth year. I’ve already enjoyed this presentation about a data drawing project.

MohioMap – Totally new to me, bookmarked after I saw it mentioned on Twitter. “Mohiomap gives you a visual way to navigate through your cloud data. You can cross-reference and group your files using simple drag-and-drop tagging. And Mohiomap lets you search across several cloud storage accounts at once.”

Round-up for July, 2015

It’s been a few weeks since the last post and there are a lot of exciting things to cover.

MoMA on Github
One of the most exciting things that happened in July, as far as the world of art and dh is concerned, is the release of MoMA’s collection data on Github. This data is a complete representation of all accessioned works (the museum’s website only includes half of the 120,000 object collection.) MoMA’s Digital Content and Strategy Manager, Fiona Romeo, wrote on blogging platform/publisher Medium about the motivation to join the ranks of museums with open collection data. And for data and art nerds, as if the release of this information isn’t enough, there has already been an in-gallery performance of the data by the Elevator Repair Service, conceived of by MoMA artists-in-residence, The Office for Creative Research. (Watch the video clip below. Warning: the language, which all comes from the museum’s collection, is not workplace friendly at the beginning.) If you just don’t feel a thrill at the idea of a 120k row .csv document, read this blog post by Jer Thorp of The Office for Creative Research who manages to write about the data release with a real sense of beauty and inspiration.

You may notice that the two blog posts linked in the previous paragraph are on the blogging platform Medium. Started by Twitter founded Evan Williams, Medium is a blog and publishing platform made for writers with a minimal and clean interface and a friendly format for longer articles. As you can see, MoMA is using it, a group of leading muse-tech folks have their own publication there called Code|Words, and Dana Allen-Greil just wrote about using it from inside federal institutions. David Carr wrote about it in the New York Times in May 2014.


Links Round-up June 15, 2015

  • The latest issue of ARTL@S Bulletin is overflowing with fantastic information about a variety of mapping and spatially-related digital art history. Articles are available for free download.
  • Students of Miriam Posner (@miriamkp on Twitter) examined the Getty Provenance Index for their capstone project in UCLA’s Digital Humanities program. Some of you may remember Getty’s Christian Huemer presenting to ARLIS2013 on his work with the GPI. The student projects and accompanying articles are really interesting and worth exploring.
  • @nypl_labs tweeted about another group of students from UC Berkeley I School who put the NYPL Menu Project through a bunch of data visualizations to great results.
  • It may not meet some definitions of digital humanities, but the case of the Rothko Harvard Murals (1963) gets a good discussion here on greg.org.